Reference & Citation Guidelines

References should be cited in the text as name and year and listed at the end of the paper alphabetically. Where reference is made to more than one work by the same author published in the same year, identify each citation in the text as follows: (Collins, 1998a), (Collins, 1998b). Where two authors are listed in the reference list, please cite in the text as (Collins & Cohen, 1999). Where three or more authors are listed in the reference list, please cite in the text as (Collins et al. 1998)

All references must be complete and accurate. References should be listed in the following style:

Article, Single Author
Adger, W. 2000. Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24(3):347–364.

Article, Multiple Authored
The last name and initials of all authors of a paper must be provided in reference list. "et al." is not acceptable in a reference list.

Walsh, P. & White, J. 1999. What will it take to monitor forest elephant populations? Conservation Biology 13(5):1194–1202.

Article, electronic
Moos, M., Andrey, J., & Johnson, L. 2006. The sustainability of telework: an ecological-footprinting approach. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 2(1):3–14. http://sspp.proquest.com/archives/vol2iss1/0511-020.moos.html.

Book, Edited
Brick, P., D. Snow, & S. Van de Wetering (Eds.). 2001. Across the Great Divide: Explorations in Collaborative Conservation and the American West.  Washington, DC: Island Press.

Book, Section
The inclusive page range for the chapter must be included.

Auzel, P. & Wilkie, D. 2000. Wildlife use in northern Congo: hunting in a commercial logging concession. In J. Robinson & E. Bennett (Eds.), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests. pp. 413–426. New York: Columbia University Press.

Book, Whole
Steel, E. 1994. Study of the Value and Volume of Bushmeat Commerce in Gabon. Libreville, Gabon: World Wildlife Fund.

Conference Proceedings
The title, inclusive dates, and place of the conference must be listed.

Goudsmit, J. 1998. Destruction of Monkey and Ape Habitats in the African Rainforest. Conference on Estimating the Value of Vertebrates. April 17, American Museum of Natural History, New York. New York: MacMillan.

Newspaper/Magazine Articles
The date and pages of the publication must be included.

Hall, E. 1976. How cultures collide. Psychology Today July 14:66-75.

Report
Wang, M. 2001. Development and Use of GREET 1.6 Fuel-Cycle Model for Transportation Fuels and Vehicle Technologies. Report ANL/ESD/TM-163. Argonne, IL: Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory. http://www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/153.pdf.

Personal Communication
Personal communication information should include the full name of the person cited, along with his or her professional title, place of employment, and the month and year of the communication.

Smith, A. 2000. Personal Communication. Publications manager, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. July 14.

  • In-text reference: (Smith, 1997)

Thesis/Dissertation
Dissertation information should include whether the work was published or unpublished, the name of the department issuing the degree, and the name and location of the university.

Gullison, R. 1995. Conservation of Tropical Forests through Sustainable Production of Forest Products. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology. Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.

Web Reference
Citations of web references should list the exact web site from which the information was taken and the date it was seen. In those cases where the full URL of an online article or other source will not function in subsequent online sessions (e.g., URLs generated from database searches), include just the URL of the web site from which the article can be accessed. Authors should keep a hard copy of any web information they cite.

UNESCO. 1992. Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development. http://www.unesco.org/science/waterday2000/dublin.htm. June 22, 2004.